Arduino boards are tiny computers that can be used to make dumb objects smart. It is used mostly by hobbyists in home automation projects and students in developing their Final Year Project or a prototype.

In this article you will learn in detail about Arduino Uno boards. Keep on reading to know more about Arduino.

What is Arduino?

Arduino is the name of a company, in Italy, that manufactures microprocessor boards. Interestingly these boards are also called Arduino , means that they are named after the name of the company .

Here are some definitions which will hopefully clarify the concept of Arduino boards.

  1. Arduino board is a circuit board that contains an integrated circuit fixed in it.
  2. Arduino is an electric tool that is used by modern users to develop many exciting projects. Such as Smart Mirror, Smart Stick, Atomic Clocks, electron microscopes, and the list goes on and on.
  3. An Arduino board is a portable motherboard used to transform regular accessories or materials to a smart one. For example, if you want to transform your room’s window to smart window you can connect the Arduino with your window to automatically control it.

The purpose of Arduino is to perform logical computations/operations e.g. if the sun is shining, keep the air conditioner ON; or if someone opens the main door turn ON the light.

Even you can make it more complicated, e.g., if I open the door and sun is shining then turn ON the lights along with the air conditioner.

The main benefit of Arduino is that it is affordable and easily available. It will cost you around $20 to $30.

Types of Arduino Boards

Arduino boards are of three types

  • Uno
  • Mega (Greater than Uno)
  • Nano (Smaller than Uno)

Despite these three, there are other fancy Arduino boards also available. These fancy boards are used for special purposes such as if you want to have Bluetooth or a networking facility.

In this article, you will find information related to the simplest Arduino board commonly known as Arduino Uno. Whereas other types are also pretty much similar to Arduino Uno. Let’s study it briefly.

Arduino has a microcontroller that has to be programmed or coded by us.

The above image shows the microcontroller of an Arduino board.

A popular misconception about Arduino is that most common men think that Arduino itself is a microprocessor whereas it is just the name of the circuit board as a whole.

The name of the microcontroller present in Arduino is ATMega32, which has been configured by a company named ATMEL.

Arduino had made it easier for us to use the circuit board along with the microcontroller anywhere in any daily life objects. In this way, the daily life objects can take input data (with the help of sensors), process it and perform some actions. Due to which these objects are called SMART devices.

To learn more about Home automation, click here.

The composition of Arduino is discussed in detail below.

I. Hardware composition

An Arduino Board contains several pin headers on its top and bottom which are used to connect to the integrated circuit. On its outer side, it has a USB port so that it can be easily connected to a computer.

Arduino board has the following physical composition.

  • USB Port – It has a USB port that helps to connect an Arduino board easily with any computer or device.
  • Barrel Jacket – A barrel jack is available if anyone wants to use an adapter for supplying current. Barrel jack’s capacity is of 9 volts.
  • Voltage Regulator – Near the barrel jacket voltage regulator is present which is used to convert 9V to 5V.
  • Reset Button – To reboot the setting of our Arduino board this button can be used.
  • Pin Connectors – Helps in connecting the Arduino.
  • TX/ RX Pins – At the bottom of the Arduino you can see these pins which are used for sending and receiving serial data.
  • Digital and Analog Pins – Above the TX/ RX pins there some digital pins ranging from pin 2 to 13 (also helps in providing input), whereas analog pins are parallel to it synchronized as A0 to A5 (used for continuous inputs).

Well, that was about its hardware.

II. Software composition

Let’s have a discussion on the software side of Arduino. It has an entire software programming environment with a user-friendly interface which makes it much easier for the beginner.

Which is very easy to code in it. Because the user does not require any knowledge regarding the electronic or mechanism of Arduino board to use it.

It is very easy to write code and upload it to the Arduino board using the Arduino Software IDE. Click Here, to download the latest version of the Arduino Software IDE.

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